THE HISTORY OF THE BLACK BOXES IN AVIATION

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SHORT HISTORY ABOUT BLACK BOXES DEVELOPMENT IN AVIATION

The airplane's black box has shared history according to the events that have taken place in history, since in the 1950s, classical passenger airplanes were equipped only with voicemail boxes in pilots booths and with a maximum capacity of 15 minutes to hold an audio tape for conversation. Instead, in military aviation, the first attempts were made with black boxes for fighting machines since 1960, so amongst the first attempts in this sense being in the former Soviet Union, which placed in a place from the drift of the double command of Mig-21U flight parameters recorder. The actor of the first black flight recorder (FDR) and cockpit voice recorder (CVR) is considered Australian David Worren with the first black box conceived on March 17, 1953, but not yet operational in commercial airplanes.

David Worren is also the one that was part of the Comet-1 Reacting Commission for the collision-fired plane crash in 1956.

The Douglas DC-8 passenger jet was the world's first standard aircraft equipped with both FDR and VCR black boxes since 1958. From 1959, the french Caravelle planes have also received black boxes and the same year, the Boeing-707 type. At the same time, the first use of black boxes in aviation accident examination was made in the 1960s in New York when Douglas DC-8 aircraft United Airlines with 826 flight collided with Trans World Airlines Lockheed Super Constellation Flight 266.

At first, these recorder boxes were equipped with a mechanical pen that matched certain flight parameters on a metal foil. For metal foil FDRs, the parameters are internally processed with data coming directly from the core sensors of the aircraft, such as Pitot accelerometers and tubes. At about the same time, a similar technology has developed that consisted in replacing the metal sheet with a photographic film and having a kind of mechanical pen with light beams. This type of flight parameter recorder was actually the first FDR (flight data recorder). Both types of flight recorders can only monitor a number of five or six important parameters, such as the magnetic position and airplane speed of the airbags. It was discovered that the metal foil and the photographic film from the recorders had become obsolete at the level of 1965 and had to seek solutions for their improvement. With the introduction of magnetic tape recorders into service, it was possible not only to record conversations but also to progressively increase the number of monitored flight parameters.
With the new FDR magnetic inputs introduced into aviation, flight parameters are no longer recorded in a single data stream. These were first sampled, digitized and multiplexed in a one second frame and the digital frames recorded on a magnetic tape using simple coded signals in 0 and 1 binary systems. They were therefore named Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR ). The need for more recording parameters has increased with the emergence of new digital electronic technologies. Thus, it has become inappropriate for the FDR to calculate internal parameters based on data received from sensors, and flight data acquisition devices have begun to be designed to collect all parameters before they are registered. Devices include Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU), Flight Data Interface Unit (FDIU), or Flight Data Acquisition Card (FDAC). They in turn command data and then send them to FDRs, whose function is limited to data recording, but aircraft operators may change the FDAU programming as needed. It is important to note that mainly large aircraft in the public transport category are equipped with data acquisition units, and for smaller capacity aircraft, the data collection function is still often performed by FDRs.

With the evolution of digital technologies, the integrated circuit boards replaced the FDR magnetic cassettes around 1985. It is assumed that the first airplane equipped with a digital flight data recorder (SSFDR or QAR) was the passenger-type ATR-42 French-Italian turbo propeller. For the first time in the world, investigations have also been carried out on the collapse in 1987 of flight 460 belonging to Aero Trasporti Italiani and involving the black box equipped with integrated circuits to solve the case. For the first time in the world on a computer monitor, the crash trajectories of 1996, such as the 402 tragedy of the TOR (Transportes Aéreos Regionais) Brazilian regional company, were based on black boxes.

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